Exertional Heat Stroke

Paving the Way for Heat Safety in Athletes, Warfighters, and Laborers

Yuri Hosokawa, PhD, ATC

Vice President of Communication and Vice President of Education

 

Every October, members of KSI travel to Washington D.C. to volunteer at the Marine Corps Marathon medical tent. This year’s trip was also a special one because we were able to continue our efforts from last year in building relationships and exchange ideas with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

 

On Thursday, October 19th, KSI had the honor of gathering representatives from federal sectors that regulate heat activity modification guidelines or study implications of heat in the welfare of warfighters and laborers. The meeting was sponsored by the National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS: https://toolkit.climate.gov/nihhis/), whose mission is to understand global health threat from extreme heat, develop a robust and science-informed response, and build capacity and communication networks to improve resilience. Participating agencies of NIHHIS include: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), NIOSH, NOAA, OSHA, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

 

KSI has a good history in working collaboratively with the occupational and military sectors, however, it was not until last year that we were able to gather representatives from all three sectors– athletic, occupational, and military­– to convene at single location and exchange ideas for future collaborations. Integration of climate and weather data from NOAA is also critical in making data driven decision to enhance the policies and guidelines for the people in these settings who are often exposed to extreme heat. Participants of this year’s meeting are currently working on a manuscript that gathers current consensus regarding heat activity modification guidelines for the physically active population (athletes, warfighters, and laborers), which we hope to release next year.

 

 

On the following day, we attended the IIRM Sports Medicine Conference hosted by the International Institute for Race Medicine, MedStar Sports Medicine, and MedStar National Rehabilitation Network. The meeting was attended by many medical providers and students who were also volunteering at the Marine Corps Marathon. At the meeting, Dr. Douglas Casa gave a presentation regarding wearable technologies in sport. Despite the recent advancement in wearable technology, his presentation warned that there is yet to be reliable, real-time, noninvasive hydration and internal body temperature assessment devices on the market. As the field of wearable technology continues to grow, researchers and clinicians must stay up-to-date with the technology advancement while also acknowledging the technological limitations to make the best-informed decisions about using data from these devices.

 

 

Later in the afternoon of the conference, we also participated in a workshop that was designed to review various treatment algorithms for medical conditions commonly seen at race medical tents in the form of problem-based-learning scenarios.  Exercise-associated collapse, cardiovascular arrest, exertional heat stroke, exertional hyponatremia, exercise associated muscle cramping and bleeding-control were covered in the workshop, all lead by the content experts. The hands-on workshop provided opportunities for young professionals to practice the skills for the first time and stimulated the exchange of various experiences from the veteran providers.

 

 

KSI was stationed at the Aid Station 9 on the day of the race, which was located between mile-21 and 22. The wet bulb globe temperature reading one-hour past the start of the race was in the mid-60’s, but quickly reached the high 70’s by noon, placing this year’s race as one of the warmer race in the history of the Marine Corps Marathon. The coordination of work among the corpsmen, athletic trainers, nurses, physical therapists, and physicians at the aid station was great. We also treated several exertional heat stroke patients on-site, where we made sure to cool the patients below 39°C before transport.

 

Our trip to Washington D.C. is a true demonstration of our mission statement– to provide research, education, advocacy and consultation to maximize performance, optimize safety and prevent sudden death for the athlete, warfighter and laborer. Whether we are treating marathon runners from exertional heat stroke or optimizing the regulations for worker safety in the heat, the physiological premise and impact of exertional heat stress is the “same” across athletes, warfighters, and laborers. Integration of minds across disciplines, such as the NIHHIS meeting, and continued advocacy to provide evidence based exertional heat stroke care are some of the core missions we will continue to carry forward from KSI.  #Strive2Protect

2017 Summer Intern KSI Fellowship Experience

Miwako Suzuki, KSI Intern Fellow

My name is Miwako Suzuki, and I am an Athletic Training student at Indiana State University. Gratefully, I was chosen to receive the opportunity to intern at the Korey Stringer Institute in the Summer Fellowship Program. I am originally from Japan, and I studied Athletic Training there as well. While receiving my education in Japan, I found it necessary to learn more about prevention and management of emergency conditions, and this sense of mission brought me to the United States. I became aware of the KSI four years ago when I was still in Japan through Dr. Yuri Hosokawa, Vice President of Education and Communication at the KSI, and I have been attracted to the KSI since then. The past two months and ten days that I spent with the KSI members were full of great experiences and learning.

Among the several projects that I worked on during the summer, the main focus was placed on the Athletic Training Locations and Services (ATLAS) Project. The aim of the ATLAS Project is to determine the extent of current athletic training services provided in the secondary school setting, and it was launched in January 2016 with these goals:

  • Create a real-time database of athletic training services in secondary schools
  • Create a directory for each state’s athletic training association and high school athletics association
  • Assist states in moving toward full-time athletic training services
  • Provide useful data to each state’s athletic training association and high school athletic association
  • Identify common factors associated with increased athletic training services across the country
  • Provide data to assist with legislative efforts to improve healthcare for high school athletes

 

At the beginning of the summer, the ATLAS Project was at the stage of figuring out the extent of athletic training services in the last 10% of high schools that we had been unable to reach. To reach those schools, I have tried multiple methods such as making phone calls, writing emails to athletic directors, and searching their website for athletic trainer’s information. Even though I made some progress with these strategies, the most effective method was reaching out to athletic trainers of the neighboring high schools of the unknown schools for help. From this experience, I have learned firsthand that ATLAS is not only a great database but also a very useful communication tool. While interacting with high school athletic trainers throughout the nation, many of them showed their appreciation and support for this study. I am very grateful to be one of the members to propel this important project forward. I would like to thank Dr. Robert Huggins for including me in this project and always guiding me. I also would like to thank Sarah Attanasio, ATC, for teaching me and providing help whenever I asked.

Testing for the Falmouth Road Race study began in mid July. We conducted a modified heat tolerance test on recreational runners of a wide range of ages who are participating in the New Balance Falmouth Road Race on August 20th, 2017. Although the study will not be completed until the race day, collecting data on individuals’ physiological responses to exercise in the heat was a great learning opportunity for me. I believe that the wide distribution of demographics of this study allowed me to encounter various responses among the subjects. With regard to conducting a laboratory test, I observed the effort of the KSI members to make the study robust. I was very fortunate to learn from such experienced and passionate colleagues. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Dr. Yuri Hosokawa and Kelsey Rynkiewicz, ATC, for their effort to involve me in this study.

 

On August 20th, which will be my last day as a KSI fellow, I will be at the New BalanceFalmouth Road Race and will serve as a medical volunteer with the KSI staff. The Falmouth Road Race has been recognized for its high incidence rate of exertional heat illnesses because of the environmental conditions and its short duration (7.1 miles), which allows runners to maintain relatively high intensity throughout the entire duration of the course. According to a previous study from the KSI, this race has saved multiple exertional heat stroke patients each year. Since I have never encountered a real exertional heat stroke case, I would like to take this opportunity as a great hands-on learning experience.

 

I appreciate every aspect of the activities that I had the opportunity to take part in at the KSI. The KSI was an even greater place than I expected. All the members are making a great effort for their projects with the strong passion and commitment for the KSI’s mission. I believe that this is the reason why the KSI has been successfully leading our profession. Lastly, I would like to thank Dr. Douglas Casa for providing such a great opportunity. I fully enjoyed summer 2017 with such great colleagues.

Seamless triage saves a life of an athlete

Yuri Hosokawa, PhD, ATC

Vice President of Communication, Vice President of Education

 

 

Earlier this summer, when everyone was relieved to have completed the spring sport season, we were invited to give a lecture and hands-on training for exertional heat stroke emergency at CoxHealth Sports Medical Conference in Springfield, MO. This was their second annual gathering to review and practice updated policy and procedures for athlete health and safety. Physicians, athletic trainers, emergency medical technicians, athletic directors and coaches of local high schools attended this meeting. During the hands-on training, multiple scenarios were practiced. For example, what do you do when the first responder was an individual who was not medically licensed? What is the chain of command when an athletic trainer is present and not present? What cooling modalities are acceptable? What precautions must be taken during cooling? This lab also reiterated the importance of cool first, transport second. I am happy to say that their updated policy specifically states to cool first and then transport after the patient’s rectal temperature is down to 102 degrees Fahrenheit and that no other measures of body temperature assessment is acceptable. Throughout the meeting, I was very impressed to see their collaboration and understanding of each other’s role and I know their athletes are in good hands.

A month and half after the meeting, I received an email from CoxHealth stating that their emergency preparedness was put to a test– where an athlete was successfully recognized and treated for exertional heat stroke.

Sarah Bankhead (ATC, athletic trainer at CoxHealth), who treated the athlete, recalls the day as follows: When our athletes were putting away the blocking bags after practice, a coach noticed one of the athletes closing his eyes and beginning to fall over in the shed. The coach caught him and immediately called for help. The first coach to reach him checked his pulse and noticed shallow rapid breathing­­. The head coach called 911 and the other two coaches started putting ice in the groin, neck, and armpit areas. I, the athletic trainer, soon came over with a rectal thermometer, inserted it, and got an initial temperature of 108 degrees Fahrenheit. After confirmation of exertional heat stroke, a tarp was immediately place underneath the athlete and began to be filled with ice and water to start the cooling process before the emergency medical service arrived. We ensured that the athlete’s temperature was cooled to 102 degrees Fahrenheit, and then the athlete was transported via ambulance for follow up evaluation. The athlete has made a full recovery with no deficits thanks to the quick actions of those above, an effective policy in place, and the Sports Safety Summit which prepared my coaches to respond

Many teams have now begun their fall pre-season training. Do you know the chain of command and procedures when a heat emergency occurs on your practice field? It is never too late to review and build a consensus among the stakeholders of your sports medicine team. Take a “time out” and go over your emergency action plan. #Strive2Protect

 

American Society for Safety Engineers Heat Stress Panel Discussion

Gabrielle Giersch, MS

Associate Director of Education & Assistant Director of Athlete Performance and Safety

On Tuesday June 20th, I had the pleasure of representing KSI and sitting on a panel for the American Society of Safety Engineers entitled “An athletic approach to heat stress – beyond water, rest, and shade.” On this panel, we discussed the importance of keeping laborers safe, and using the knowledge we’ve garnered on athletes to do so. We discussed the causes of heat related illnesses, contributing factors, and how to best prevent heat illnesses from occurring in a working population. This panel could definitely be considered a conversation with a very active audience who was very interested in the topic and asked a lot of great questions! While the panel was only an hour long, some great information was put forth and hopefully with collaborations and putting the knowledge that we all have together, we can reduce the amount of heat related illnesses and deaths among laborers!

Preventing Sudden Death in Sport– CoxHealth Sports Safety Conference

Brad Endres, ATC, CSCS

Assistant Director of Sports Safety Policies

The prevention of sudden death in sports begins well before a catastrophic injury occurs.

It may be true that heroes are made in how they respond when they are needed most. Many stories throughout the country give testament to the life-saving nature of an appropriate and timely response to medical emergencies in sport. While these stories are indeed uplifting, they are often the result of a great amount of effort dedicated to being prepared in the event of an emergency. During their 2017 Sports Medicine Conference, the Sports Medicine team at CoxHealth exemplified the old adage that “practice makes perfect”, and it was truly a sight to behold. This team, led by Dr. Shannon Woods, was a shining example of how to collaborate with multiple health care providers in order to create, implement, and practice “best-practice” policies and procedures intended to promote athlete safety. KSI was invited to travel to Springfield, MO to take part in the Conference, and it was inspiring to witness the rubber meet the road in regards to the practical application of research.

Throughout the two days of the conference, KSI staff led evidence-based educational sessions on exertional heat illnesses. KSI Vice-President of Communication and Education Dr. Yuri Hosokawa started off the conference on Friday morning with an evidence-based presentation about the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses. After the presentation, she led the participants through a practical lab session on the “best-practices” of responding to an individual suffering from exertional heat stroke (EHS).  The participants attending the Friday session of the conference included athletic trainers, coaches, sports medicine physicians, EMS personnel, and school administrators from local area high schools, given that these practical skills would be vital for treating one of their athletes in the event they developed EHS while participating in sports. On Friday afternoon, CoxHealth staff led mock emergency scenarios where participants  were able to gain hands-on practice of what they had learned in the morning. The participants took the scenarios seriously, which led to great discussions during the scenario debriefings. Additionally, the local Springfield news station recorded a news segment about the Conference in order to spread the word about emergency preparedness and athlete safety.

On the final day of the conference, the participants included physical therapists, physicians from other specialties, parents of young athletes, and other interested members of the community. Yuri and I geared our presentations to a slightly different audience, but the message was largely the same: evidence-based policies and procedures can indeed save lives.

Yuri and I were thankful to be invited to the 2017 CoxHealth Sports Medicine Conference, and proud to represent KSI at such an impressive collaborative event. Being in compliance with “best practice” emergency response policies is not always the easiest thing to do, but networks like CoxHealth Sports Medicine are proving that it can be done. Because of their efforts, the athletes they serve will undoubtedly be safe and well cared for.

Marine Corps Marathon Weekend

By Gabrielle Giersch, MS, Assistant Director of Education, Assistant Director of Athlete Performance and Safety

 

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KSI in the White House

 

Thursday October 27th through Sunday October 30th a group of KSI staff traveled to Washington D.C. to present at the American Medical Athletic Association’s 25th Annual Sports Medicine Symposium and worked in the medical tent at the 42nd Marine Corps Marathon (MCM). While in D.C., the KSI staff got to explore the city, tour the White House, enjoy some of the museums on Constitution Avenue, visit Arlington National Cemetery and view the changing of the guards.

 

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Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers

 

We had a great showing at the American Medical Athletic Association 25th Annual Sports Medicine Symposium at the Marine Corps Marathon at Georgetown University Friday October 28th. Brendon McDermott Ph.D., ATC, alumnus of University Connecticut and also one of KSI’s medical and science advisory board member, and his colleague, Cory Butts M.S., traveled from University of Arkansas and presented Muscle Damage and Renal Function in Athletes with Physiological and Environmental Stress. From KSI, Luke Belval, M.S., ATC, CSCS, presented Changing Guidelines on Exertional Heat Stroke Care: Point of Care to Transport to the ER, and Douglas Casa Ph.D. presented Policy Changes Save Lives in all Levels of Sport: New Evidence and Successes. All three of these presentations helped to illustrate the important role of athletic trainers and medical staff at races, and show successes that KSI has had in treating exrtional heat strokes and changing policies to reduce the prevalence of sudden death in sport.

On Saturday, the staff had a “play day” in D.C. that consisted of visiting museums and playing Escape the Room D.C. Both KSI teams escaped (photo below) with the better team just beating the losing team by a few minutes!

 

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On Sunday the real fun began. The staff was up bright and early to make it to Aid Station #9 at mile marker 21 of the MCM! We evaluated and treated several athletes who were experiencing exercise associated muscle cramps and dehydration. Our Medical Advisor, Dr. John Jardine also played a critical role in treating exertional heat stroke patients.

 

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MCM KSI Medical Tent

 

The annual trip to D.C./MCM is a great way for the staff to learn, use their expertise, and bond.

Colby Concussion Summit and Beach to Beacon Road Race

By William Adams, PhD, ATC, Vice President of Sport Safety

This past weekend, KSI’s Vice President of Sport Safety William Adams, PhD, ATC and Director of Communication and Education Yuri Hosokawa, MAT, ATC were in attendance at the first annual concussion summit held at Colby College, hosted by the Concussion Institute at Colby College. They joined representatives from the National Athletic Trainers’ Association, as well as faculty members from the University of New Hampshire, University of Pittsburgh, Colby College and others.

 

The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the diagnosis and management of concussion and to establish the next steps that are needed from a research perspective to enhance clinician’s objective assessment of concussion in athletes.  The meeting concluded with an action plan to examine specific areas of concussion diagnosis and management to continue to add to the body of scientific literature surrounding the validity and reliability of tools that clinicians can use in their toolbox for concussion management.

Colby Concussion Summit 16

 

Following the concussion summit, KSI traveled south to Portland, Maine for the Beach to Beacon Road Race. The race weekend began with the medical symposium, where both William Adams and Yuri Hosokawa were two of the invited speakers. Adams spoke on hydration in today’s athletes while Hosokawa presented a case series examining the treatment and management of two exertional cases recently published by Stearns et al. in Current Sports Medicine Reports. The symposium was a huge hit and was extremely well received by all of the attendees.

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The road race occurred on Saturday in Cape Elizabeth, Maine. For those unfamiliar, Beach to Beacon is a 10-kilometer (6.1 mile) road race finishing at the picturesque Portland Headlight Lighthouse in Fort Williams. KSI staff members William Adams, Yuri Hosokawa and Samm Scarneo had the opportunity to volunteer as medical staff during the race. The day finished off with roughly 6,500 runners finishing the race and the medical volunteers providing excellent care to those needing it, including four individuals who had suffered exertional heat stroke. The best part of the race weekend were the new friendships that were made with the other physicians, nurses and athletic trainers who were also volunteering in the medical tent.

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KSI Fellowship

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By Savannah Knighton, Korey Stringer Institute Fellow

My name is Savannah Knighton and I am an undergraduate athletic training student at Louisiana State University. I became aware of the Korey Stringer Institute (KSI) in 2014 after my brother suffered a heat stroke. KSI played an integral role in his return to the football field. I have always admired the work that they have done, and this summer I was fortunate enough to become part of the team when I was offered the 2016 summer fellowship.

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My main focus this summer was the Athletic Training Locations and Services (ATLAS) project. The goal of ATLAS is to create a real-time database of the athletic training services in secondary schools across the country. Being an athletic training student and a strong advocate for the importance of the presence of athletic trainers at all levels, this was a very appropriate task. I spent much of my time uploading the information from new surveys to our database. I also created numerous contact lists of athletic trainers from different states to help promote ATLAS.  This was my first real experience working with excel, but I was able to learn numerous tips and tricks.

 

I was also asked to write letters to authors that inadequately described exertional heat stroke. I have become very knowledgeable about heat illnesses, especially exertional heat stroke; so I was glad to be able share this knowledge. I was even able to learn a little bit more about the specifics and misconceptions of heat illnesses while writing these letters.  My creative side was put to the test by designing some social media graphics to help promote KSI and its initiatives.

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During my last few weeks here, I was able to help out with some of the research studies. I spent many hours in the heat chamber, helping out with  max testing, and collecting data before and after testing. This was my first experience with research, but it has definitely made me consider about going into research in the future.

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I cannot thank the KSI team enough for all the mentoring they have done. The amount of knowledge I have acquired from them this summer is unfathomable. I am excited to bring everything I have learned back to Louisiana and carry it with me throughout my career. I can only hope that future fellows learn just as much as I have. KSI does some amazing work, and being apart of the team even for a summer is an experience I would recommend to any athletic training student.

KSI at the Vermont City Marathon & Relay

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By Andrea Fortunati, Assistant Director of Elite Athlete Health and Performance

Korea Stringer Institute was represented for the first time at the 27th annual People’s United Bank Vermont City Marathon & Relay that was held on May 24th, 2015 in Burlington, VT. The race included 8,000 participants and began promptly at 8:00am with the Wheelchair participants, followed by the runners at 8:03am.

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Members of the KSI, William Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Luke Belval, and Andrea Fortunati worked in the main medical tent located at the finish line as well as at medical tents located at the midpoint of the race.

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This year, there were approximately 150 medical visits seen throughout the day with a total of six athletes transported to the University of Vermont Medical Center.

Four cases of exertional heat stroke were seen and treated at the marathon. During all of these cases at least one member of KSI was present and aided in the treatment process. One case was treated at the medical tent located at mile 13 and the other three cases were treated in the main medical tent at the finish line. In the critical care tent there were two cold-water immersion tubs and members of KSI ready to implement proper protocols and procedures that have been profoundly researched to treat EHS. Treatment for the cases in the critical care tent where done with cold water immersion, which is found to be the quickest and most effective way to cool the body, and rectal thermometers were used for the body temperatures assessment, which is critical in assessing the body temperature in people who are suffering from exertional heat stroke. Once the athletes had been properly cooled, all EHS cases were transported to the UVMMC following the medical organizer’s protocol for a follow-up examination.

This is the second of several marathons KSI will be involved with this year, the first being at the Boston Marathon. Other road races KSI are attending include the Lake Placid Ironman, the Falmouth Road Race, New Haven Road Race, the Marine Corps Marathon, and more.

This is the second of several marathons KSI will be involved with this year, the first being at the Boston Marathon. Other road races KSI are attending include the Lake Placid Ironman, the Falmouth Road Race, New Haven Road Race, the Marine Corps Marathon, and more.