Anaphylaxis Prevention

How do you prevent anaphylaxis?

  • An established anaphylaxis Emergency Action Plan (EAP):
    • Contact details – names and numbers – for emergencies, including family members to be contacted in an emergency
    • Details of the individual’s allergies/known trigger factors
    •  Generic and proprietary names of drugs and possible cross-sensitivities to drugs, if relevant
    • How to recognize the signs and symptoms of mild, moderate and severe allergic reactions and how to act in each case
    • Medication prescribed and when it should be used
    • Management of emergencies: actions to be taken and medications to be used
    • Clear statement of the need to administer adrenaline without hesitation
    • When to call emergency services
    • Where medication is stored at home, in school, or workplace
    • Review dates for prescribed medication if appropriate, e.g. when child reaches 30 kg in weight or expiration dates
    • Number of injectable adrenaline devices (e.g. Epipens) required
    • Who is trained to administer medication in home, school, workplace
    • Knowledge of the use of epinephrine auto injectors

 

  • Understand of the importance of epinephrine auto injectors

 

  • Be aware of athletes who have allergies and need or use Epi-pens

 

  • Inform the correct personnel (e.g. coaches, assistants) of athletes with allergies and their triggers

 

  • Have athletes avoid triggers (e.g. foods, medications, insects, cold air)

 

  • Epi-pens should be carried at all times by those with a known life-threatening allergy

 

  • Athletes that have experienced an anaphylactic reaction should be sent to an allergist for testing and education

 

  • Those at risk for anaphylaxis should wear or hold medical identification

 

Common anaphylaxis mechanisms and triggers include the following categories and examples:

  • Foods (i.e., nuts, shellfish, fish, milk, egg, etc)
  • Venoms (i.e., stinging insects)
  • Medications (i.e., NSAIDs)
  • Rubber latex
  • Radiocontrast media
  • Physical factors (i.e., exercise, cold, heat, sunlight, emotional stress)
  • Ethanol (i.e., wine, beer)
  • Medications